How To Install CentOS 7 by manually Creating LVM Linux Partitions

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What Is CentOS?

The CentOS Project is a community-driven free software effort focused on delivering a robust open source ecosystem.

Find more at: https://www.centos.org/

Lab Configuration

In this lab scenario 32 Gb hard disk is used to manually create LVM (Logical Volume Manager) Linux partitions namely boot, swap, root, home, var, srv and tmp. Feel free to adjust the sizes of the partitions accordingly to the requirement of your organization.

TUTORIAL

Firstly download CentOS 7 at https://www.centos.org/download/ and create bootble CD/DVD

Select Install CentOS 7

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Choose the language and press continue

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Date & Time

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Language Support

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Keyboard Layout

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Installation Source

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Software Selection

In this scenario minimal install is selected

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Installation destination

In this tutorial LVM Linux partitions are created manually

If you are going to create the root (/) partition as a LVM, be sure to create a standard /boot partition separately to keep the boot files and the Linux kernel because the system cannot boot form LVM partitions.

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Create The Standard Partition

Create a Standard Boot Partition

Mount Point: /boot
Desired Capacity: 250mb
Device Type: Standard Partition
File System: ext4
Label: boot

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Press Update Settings

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Create The New LVM PV And Rest of The Partitions

Root  partition

Mount Point: /
Desired Capacity: 5 GB
Device Type: LVM [new LVM PV should be created – NewLVM-PV]
File System: ext4
Label: root

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Create a new LVM PV – NewLVM-PV

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Swap partition

Desired capacity is calculated according to the system RAM. If the system RAM is less than 2 GB it should be multiplied by 2, if the system RAM is more than 2 GB, should add 500 mb to the system RAM.

EX -:
system RAM is 250 mb —> Desired Capacity is 500 mb [250 mb * 2]
system RAM is 3 GB —> Desired Capacity is 3.5 GB [3 GB + 500 mb]

Mount Point: not mounted or labled
Desired Capacity: 2 GB [since the system RAM is 1 GB, 1 GB mulitiplied by 2]
Device Type: LVM [NewLVM-PV]
File System: swap
Label: swap

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Home partition

Mount Point: /home
Desired Capacity: 4 GB
Device Type: LVM [NewLVM-PV]
File System: ext4
Label: home

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Tmp partition (optional)

Mount Point: /tmp
Desired Capacity: 2 GB
Device Type: LVM [NewLVM-PV]
File System: ext4
Label: tmp

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Var partition (optional) on web and mail servers (LVM)

Mount Point: /var
Desired Capacity: 3 GB
Device Type: LVM [NewLVM-PV]
File System: ext4
Label: var

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Srv partition (optional) on FTP servers (LVM)

Mount Point: /srv
Desired Capacity: 3 GB
Device Type: LVM [NewLVM-PV]
File System: ext4
Label: srv

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After creating required partitions press Done

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Select Accept Changes

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Press Begin Installation

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Configure Root account password to complete installation

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Press Finish Configuration

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Press Reboot

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After The REBOOT

After the reboot, login to the root account using the password given

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To view the file system table use the command [find more at: https://www.howtogeek.com/howto/38125/htg-explains-what-is-the-linux-fstab-and-how-does-it-work/]

cat /etc/fstab

A file named /etc/fstab lists the devices (typically hard disk partitions) that are to be mounted at boot time.

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To view users

cat /etc/passwd

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To view created groups

cat /etc/group

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How to Install NethServer

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What is NethServer?

NethServer is an operating system for Linux enthusiasts, designed for small offices and medium enterprises.

Available Features

Watermark NethServerorg_learn-more - features.pngPrerequisites

  • 64 bit CPU
  • 1 GB RAM
  • 8 GB free disk space

In this tutorial NethServer 6.8 is installed.

Tutorial

Download link

http://www.nethserver.org/getting-started-with-nethserver/

Boot the downloaded ISO image from CD/DVD/USB

Choose NethServer interactive install

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Choose the correct LAN, MAC address

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Give an appropriate IP address (EX- 192.168.0.88)

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Install…

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Use following credentials

Default username : root
Root password : Nethesis,1234

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You can change the root password with following commands in command line or wait and do that in the Server Manager.

passwd root

New password:
Retype new password:

To access NethServer’s Server-manager use the following address in the web browser

https://192.168.0.88:980 (change the ip address accordingly)

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Change the root password

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Change the Hostname and the domain name

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Time Zone

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Change the SSH TCP port number or keep the defaults. Changing is recommended because of security reasons.

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Usage statistics will be sent to nethserver.org by default. Select “No Thanks” if you don’t like the option.

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Apply the changes.

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make sure you update using following command

yum update

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How to Install NethServer Web Proxy

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Tutorial

Select and Install Web Proxy from administration –> Software Center

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Select Gateway –> Web Proxy

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Supports Four modes

  • Manual: all clients must be configured manually
  • Authenticated users must enter a user name and password in order to navigate
  • Transparent: all clients are automatically forced to use the proxy for HTTP connections
  • Transparent SSL: all clients are automatically forced to use the proxy for HTTP and HTTPS connections

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Configure cache settings too

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Configure the proxy settings in Client Computers. (Proxy server’s listening port is 3128)

Internet Explorer

Tools –> Internet Options –> Connections –> LAN Settings

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Firefox

Tools –> Options –> Advanced –> Network –> Settings

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If you want you can Install nethserver-lightsquid package to generate web proxy stats.

Reference

http://docs.nethserver.org/en/v7/web_proxy.html

 

How to install pfSense Cluster using CARP

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This guide is divided into 4 sections

01 IP address configuration
02 Firewall rule
03 CARP settings
04 Virtual IPs

And also keep in mind that we are using pfSense 2.2.6 version for the tutorial

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01. IP address configuration

Each master and slave device should be equipped with 3 network cards (WAN, LAN and synchronization)

pfSense master

install 3 network cards with appropriate IP configuration

WAN : 192.168.91.149 / 24
LAN : 192.168.4.21 / 24
SYNC : 192.168.10.21 / 24

configure virtual ip addresses for WAN and LAN only on master. These settings will be replicated to the slave [creating virtual IPs will be discussed later in 4th section]

WAN virtual ip : 192.168.91.10 / 24
LAN virtual ip : 192.168.4.10 / 24

pfSense slave

install 3 network cards with appropriate IP configuration

WAN : 192.168.91.150 / 24
LAN : 192.168.4.22 / 24
SYNC : 192.168.10.22 / 24

02. Firewall rule

configure firewall rules on both master and slave (same configuration for both devices)

go to “Firewall” —> “Rules” and select “sync” interface

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configure following settings and save

interface : SYNC
protocol : any

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03. CARP settings

pfSense slave

go to “Firewall” —> virtual IPs and click CARP settings tab

tick synchronize status
select interface “sync”

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pfSense master

go to “Firewall” —> virtual IPs and click CARP settings tab

tick synchronize status
select interface “sync”

and provide

slave machine sync IP address
username and password of slave machine

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and don’t forget to tick the following boxes

Synchronize Rules
Synchronize NAT
Synchronize Virtual IPs

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04. Virtual IPs

as stated in the early part of the guide we have to create two LAN and WAN virtual IPs.

go to Firewall —> Virtual IPs  and click plus sign

WAN virtual IP

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LAN virtual IP

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after creating virtual IPs the system will look like this

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Testing

After implementing the cluster, conduct testing to make sure it is working in a event of a failover / disaster.